28 11 19

You might not realize it, but writing makes the world go ’round. Huffington Post lays out some reasons why writing is more important than it’s ever been. As author Tomas Laurinavicius puts it, “In fact, the importance of writing has perhaps increased in the last decade or so, thanks to trends in technology. Most folks communicate via email, text, or social media, and hence, many millions of pieces of information are flowing between us through the written word every day. In matters of business, when every second counts, strong writing makes the difference between smooth operations and clumsy footing.”

Writing isnt only important

Writing isn’t only important for business or academics, either. You use a wide variety of different writing styles in your daily life, even if you don’t think of it. That’s why it’s important to learn about different styles of writing, so you can learn what to focus on and how you can improve each one.

Argumentative writing is a particularly tricky one. For one thing, argumentative writing involves navigating conflicting opinions by its very nature. People get defensive when their ideas are being challenged or being asked to change. Tempers can flare, and people can get edgy. This negates your opportunity to actually change or influence someone’s thinking.

We’re going to look at some effective argumentative essay writing tips to help you master this particular art form.

Argumentative writing is one of the three main types of thesis

What Is Argumentative Writing?

Argumentative writing is a form of persuasive writing. It’s one of the three main types of thesis statements, alongside analytical essays and expository essays. Unlike analytical or expository essays, however, argumentative writing does have an opinion and an angle. You’re trying to convince your readers of something. It’s still got to be laid out like an official essay, however; so argumentative essays are different than something like an opinionated blog post or personal status update.

Now let’s take a look at some specific effective argumentative essay writing tips.

argument is the cornerstone

#1: Start With An Argument 

The argument is the cornerstone of argumentative essay writing. It’s the nucleus around which you will construct the rest of your essay. It will also inform the research you conduct, the formatting of your essay, even the language you will use to convince your readers.

You’ll want to pick an argument that’s well-supported enough to yield enough research to flesh out your essay. You’ll also want to think about the public perceptions of your argument, as well. You’ll need to consider the people you’re trying to convince. You’ll have to imagine some of their counter-arguments so you can address them with your argumentative essay.

next step is to craft your thesis statement

#2: Craft Your Thesis

Once you’ve settled upon your central argument, started your research, and considered your intended audience, the next step is to craft your thesis statement. This is similar to constructing your case, but refined and condensed. It boils your central argument down to one sentence, ideally, or into an easily understandable concept, at the very least.

Think of the thesis statement as the ‘elevator pitch’ for your argumentative essay. An elevator pitch, if you don’t know, is a Hollywood term for how you’d sell an idea over the span of an elevator ride. It helps you get really clear on your argument.

It’s a good idea to come up with your thesis statement before beginning your research in earnest. It helps make sure you don’t waste precious time making wrong turns and going down blind alleys during the research phase.

next step is to craft your thesis statement

#3: Do Your Research 

Now that you know what position you’re taking for your argument and settled on your thesis statement, you’re ready to begin researching in earnest. Finding research for your argumentative essay is an art form all its own. Or, even more specifically, a science.

It’s not difficult to find evidence to research to support pretty much any argument in the information age. Consider OurHollowEarth.com, a website that states that the Earth is hollow and populated by The Twelve Tribes Of Israel. The website looks legit. It’s even got some high-quality backlinks. The mid-90s web design may be a giveaway that something’s amiss. The argument that UFOs actually come from the Hollow Earth to defend the ancient tribes that live there might be another clue.

Not only do you need to find the right information to support your argument, you also need to consider where that information is coming from. Do your best to find research from high-quality sources. Scientific studies and articles from peer-reviewed journals are the classic sources for academic papers, for instance. Published books are another authoritative research resource. Be careful with self-published books, however, as there’s less quality control over what gets published these days.

Don’t just research your own argument, either. You’ll want to do some research around the opposing argument as well. Think of writing your argumentative essay like preparing for a debate. While your opponent won’t be in the same space at the same time, they’re still your intended audience. While you’ll also want to consider people that already agree with your argument, you want to watch out about preaching to the choir. You’ve only got so much time to prepare your argumentative essay.

#4: Lay Out Your Argument Logically

Now that your research is underway and you know what points you’re trying to make, it’s time to decide on the format for your essay and then get to writing! Although every essay is different, the skeleton of every essay is the same: intro, body, conclusion.

The intro is where you’ll lay out your thesis, as well as snaring your reader’s attention. The conclusion is where you’ll reiterate your main point and attempt to leave your reader with a lasting impression. Both of these are fairly simple, often as little as one paragraph.

The body of your argumentative essay is where you’ll spend most of your time and focus. Although every piece is different, with differing lengths and requirements, a good rule of thumb is to have three supports in favour of your thesis. This will inform the format of the body of your argumentative essay, as well.

Think of each argument as a subheading. The supporting argument would be the title, so to speak, with the following content backing up the initial support.

Once you get the format of your argumentative essay down, it practically writes itself!

Writing an argumentative essay isn’t just a useful skill to help you get through school. It’s something you’ll use throughout your life, especially in today’s text-heavy world. You’ll use these skills throughout your career as well as in your personal life. Learning how to write argumentative essays will serve you well in all kinds of surprising ways.

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24 10 19

Writing essays is an important, vital life skill. Whether you’re writing an essay for a class or updating your resume, knowing how to write a smart, compelling essay is a skill that can lead to success. If you’ve ever been told your writing could use some extra polish, there are a few things you can do to make your essays that much more compelling.

Use these tips to make your writing much stronger and your points more compelling:

  1. Start with an outline 

Before you even start writing, it’s a good idea to know what you’re going to say. Making a basic outline is key to narrowing down your thesis and formulating your points. Include all the facts supporting your central thesis to help organize your ideas into a coherent essay that flows naturally. Your outline should have a similar structure to your finished piece. Include an introduction to introduce your thesis, a body with several paragraphs to present and discuss your evidence, and a conclusion to tie it all together and connect it to your original thesis.

Use the right word

  1. Build your vocabulary 

There’s a quote by Mark Twain: “Use the right word, not its second cousin.” How you use language always matters, and it pays to know what the words you use mean. A varied, vibrant vocabulary is key to expressing precisely what you mean, clearly and concisely. This is an especially important point in academic writing; in that case, you are trying to convince your readers that you are someone who can make a reasoned argument. A broad word palate can go a long way toward making your arguments much more persuasive.

A good writer should never rest on their laurels; always keep an eye out for ways to improve your vocabulary. There’s always room for improvement when it comes to vocabulary.

  1. Master proper grammar

This may sound like a given, but grammar matters when writing an essay. Master proper grammar, syntax, and punctuation to make your work more understandable for your readers. Familiarize yourself with the common rules (e.g. subject-verb agreement, tenses, and sentence construction) to make sure you have a strong foundation for your writing. One common issue is the difference between using “who” and “whom.” “Who” is used to refer to the subject (the one doing the action), and “whom” to the object (the one receiving the action). Knowing all the right rules can make all the difference in the world. Master how grammar works to ensure your readers take you seriously.

Find credible sources

  1. Do your research

Conduct basic and thorough research to prepare yourself for writing your essay. Meticulous research is vital for a persuasive presentation of your ideas. Find some credible sources (e.g. studies published in academic journals, primary sources, or famous literary works) to put some expert weight behind your arguments. When reading the works of others, identify how your work differs from theirs to help define the parameters of your essay.

  1. Avoid repetition

It’s generally a good idea to mix things up a little with your writing. Refrain from using the same words again and again; readers tend to view it as a sign of laziness. The easiest thing in many cases is to remove the repeated phrase. However, if you do need that phrase, try replacing the word with something similar.

For example, if you find yourself overusing pronouns, substitute a proper noun in their place. Alternatively, use a synonym that can take the place of a word you are repeating. A final step is to take the integral words of your sentence and discard repeated words. Expand those vital words to breathe new life into your paper.

  1. Use the active voice

Active ideas and images are more powerful (and memorable) than passive ones. For example, compare “He did his chores,” to “The chores were done by him.” Active voice emphasizes the subject and what they are doing. It’s more engaging, and will grip your readers far more strongly. This makes your content more concise, precise, and memorable; and that makes your readers feel their time was well-spent.

  1. Banish the banal 

Readers come to an essay looking for new ideas and fresh thoughts. Look through your essay during your editing and proofreading process for any cliches and idioms, then replace them with your own phrasing. This includes similes or metaphors you have used throughout the work (especially the common ones).

strong conclusion helps you cap a quality essay

  1. End purposefully 

The conclusion helps wrap everything up. Its purpose is to tie together all the ideas that you have presented to prove your point. A solid conclusion should review your key points and relate them to your thesis to show how the evidence proves or disproves it. If your conclusion leads to further questions, recognize them and present them as future topics for discussion.

And, finally, the two most important ways to improve your writing skills:

Reading voraciously

  1. Read, read, read

You may have heard talk that becoming a good writer starts by being a voracious reader. Devouring plenty of books naturally helps you become a better writer; reading helps expose you to different styles, ideas, and genres. Use the things you pick up from your reading to help you cultivate your ideas and sharpen your skills when you write. Read other people’s essays (or opinion pieces in the newspapers) to pick up new ways to improve your writing skills. Bring a critical eye to what you read. Ask yourself what you did or didn’t like about their essays, how biased they seemed, and whether or not they were persuasive.

The more you read, the more you learn. You may even pick up new techniques you can use yourself.

Hone your skills every day

  1. Write, write, write

As with reading, writing is another way of honing your skills. Like other skills, writing needs practice for you to improve. Make time to practice regularly to keep yourself sharp. Try making a schedule to govern how you spend your time to get more writing done each day. You can also do more writing than your essays; try different writing projects (e.g. poetry and short stories) to broaden your horizons and find more ways to express your ideas.

Another thing you can try is keeping an eye out for local writing groups in Toronto. It’s a great way to find like-minded people with whom you can swap ideas and get feedback.

At Masters Essay, we provide high-quality, well-researched academic papers to help you manage heavy workloads without compromising quality. When you need help writing articles, speeches, essays, and reports, you can count on us to deliver.

 Drop us a line at (647) 436-7280 (Toronto & GTA), (587) 880-4707 (Calgary), (604) 245-5865 (Vancouver), or visit our contact page to get in touch. We’re ready to help!

27 09 19

Essays are an essential component of your academic success. You need to know how to write an essay for exams, as part of course work, and even to get into college or university. Feeling confident in knowing how to write a good essay will help you throughout your academic life.

It can be challenging to write a good essay that stands out from the rest. Many people wonder how best to choose a topic, organize their research and clearly state their arguments.

Here are some tips for writing a good essay with some good essay examples that will help unlock that writer’s block.

Know What You Are Writing

The first thing to tackle when you are starting to work on your essay is to know what kind of essay you are writing. The type of essay your write will determine how you approach the topic, how you share the information with your audience and, in some cases, how you format your essay.

Although there are many terms for the kinds of essays out there, they fit into four main categories. It all depends on what your goals as a writer are.

  • Are you telling a story?
  • Are you describing an event?
  • Are you convincing your reader of an argument?
  • Are you conveying a personal experience?

Each goal will have a slightly different way of approaching the writing. Before you begin your essay, be sure you know what kind of essay you want to write.

Narrative essays often tell a personal story

Four Basic Types Of Essay

  1. The Narrative Essay

The focus of a narrative essay is to tell a story (often about something that happened to you). It can be challenging because it means you have to write about yourself and how this particular experience influenced you.

It helps to make the story as compelling and interesting as possible and try to involve the reader throughout the telling with a first-person narrative. Your narrative essay should also lead the reader towards a conclusion or personal statement.

Some typical themes for a narrative essay topic are:

  • First day at a new school
  • Road trip
  • Reaching a goal

You should use descriptive language in your narrative essay, and precise details to help your story come alive. Remember — it is a story, so be sure to include story elements such as plot, location, characters, dialogue and conflict.

descriptive-essay

  1. The Descriptive Essay

The purpose of a descriptive essay is to paint a picture with words in the mind of your reader of a particular topic. It is close to a narrative essay, but with a descriptive essay, you don’t need to tell a story, create a vivid image of your topic in the mind of your reader.

Descriptive essays are usually short, clear and concise and use vivid, expressive language to describe their topic. Even though your goal is to paint a picture, you should begin with a thesis, develop your theme and end with a conclusion. You don’t need to do a lot of research or find quotes to back up your statements with descriptive essays. They are more like creative writing.

Start with an introduction of the topic, and be sure to mention your relationship to the person, place or object. In the main body of the essay, focus on the particular qualities of the topic and use a paragraph to go into detail for each one. Use your conclusion to talk about your personal feelings on the topic.

Your goal is to make your reader feel like the object, place or person is right in front of their eyes and that they can taste, hear it and smell it. It helps to use language that engages all five senses. The best kinds of descriptive essays appeal to the readers’ emotions and use the description of the topic to convey a deeper meaning.

Typical descriptive essay topics could include:

  • Describe your favourite food
  • Describe the steps for riding a bike
  • Describe your childhood kitchen

How to Ride a Bike

  1. The Expository Essay

An expository essay presents an analysis of a topic in a balanced way and uses facts, statistics, quotes and examples to back up their statements. An expository essay is based on facts, not personal feelings or emotions of the writer, so it is generally not written in the first person. 

Examples of expository essays can include:

  • Compare and contrast essays
  • Cause and effect essays
  • Describing a process — ‘How To’ essay
  • Analyzing a concept — exploring and describing an event or written work

Topics for expository essays can be a wide variety such as current issues, trends in politics, or questions in history or culture. Some example topics for an expository essay include:

  • Explain the history of your community
  • Explain the new provincial seniors’ dental plan
  • Explain the history of your school
  • The dangers of vaping

Persuasive essays use facts and expert

  1. The Persuasive Essay

The writer’s goal in a persuasive essay is to convince the reader of their point of view or argument. Persuasive essays use facts, examples, expert opinions, reasoning and appeals to emotion to present a case, and argue why their point of view is correct.

Good topics for persuasive essays can come from almost anywhere; typical topics for a persuasive essay include:

  • Should 16-year-olds be allowed to vote?
  • Should university education be free?
  • Should companies pay for recycling or disposal of their products?
  • Should college athletes be paid?
  • Should children be banned from playing violent video games?

When you write your persuasive essay, think about the audience that will read your work. Build your arguments based on what your audience knows about your topic and what they will need to hear to be convinced.

Start with an introductory paragraph and thesis that clearly states your case. Develop the main points in your argument in each paragraph, and finish with a strong conclusion that restates your position.

College admittance essays

College Admission Essays

College admission essays are one of the most commonly asked-for essays when applying to college. The purpose of this essay is not to prove you have done your homework and know your facts; it is to help the admission people get a sense of who you are as a person.

Most university and college admission websites have examples of admission essays and what they are looking for. What is most important is that your essay conveys a clear sense of who you are as a person. You can include facts and some of your academic knowledge, but these should be used to convey what is most important to you.

It can be difficult for some students to find their voice when writing college essays as most of their writing experience up to this point has been writing for assignments or using guidelines for a particular teacher or instructor. It helps to choose a topic that is interesting or matters to you, find your voice, share your personality and personal references and make sure you proofread it very well.

Essay writing can be a challenge, but with these tips and examples of good essays, you will be off to a good start. Find a topic that interests you, do your research, and essay writing can be interesting and fun.

If you are looking for help with writing a good essay, talk to us at Masters Essay. We offer essay writing assistance at any level. Call us today at (647) 436-7280 or take a look at our list of services.

26 08 19

Writing an essay can be challenging. You may have excellent ideas, but if you can’t express your arguments clearly, you won’t get the marks you worked so hard to earn. Maybe you struggle with getting started on a first draft, and don’t know where to begin;

 Essay writing is an integral part of your academic life. These tips will help you improve your essay writing, and help you go from struggling academically to soaring.

  1. Read The Question, Then Answer It

Students often don’t read the assignment carefully to find out precisely what the instructor is asking them to do. This includes the length of the essay, as well as the content. If your teacher asks for a one-page essay, make sure that you turn in one page and not a 5-page full-length report. You won’t get any bonus marks for the extra pages, and you may get docked marks for not following instructions.

Read the whole assignment carefully to ensure that you understand what is being asked of you. Then reread it, making notes of all the details like length, due date, and any additional requirements (like the number of sources you need to use, whether or not they want illustrations, and other details).

Once you understand what is being asked for, it’s time to get working.

Pay attention to what first pops into your thoughts when reading the question. These first ideas and impulses can be a good place to start on approaching the topic.

  1. Make A Point!

A common problem in student essay writing is that the writer doesn’t choose a point of view in their essay. You may spend a lot of time describing things and talking about others’ points of view, but not making an argument for why you think that particular situation is correct or incorrect.

Take a point of view, make an argument, and then find ways to back it up in your research.

Be sure to make careful notes

  1. Do Your Research – Check Your Facts!

Usually, your teacher or professor will recommend sources to help with your research that corresponds with the topic for your essay. Do the reading, and write down quotes and statistics that will support your argument, along with proper references. There’s nothing worse than making a bold argument, and then forgetting what page of the 500+ page book you thought you saw the quote on.

You may also want to look up what writers arguing against your thesis are saying, it is helpful to have a broad understanding of the topic, and it may help you craft a more persuasive argument.

  1. Use An Outline To Structure Your Argument

Start with writing your thesis and create a list of the main arguments you will use in your essay. By creating a clear outline with a structure, it helps organize your thoughts for when you start to write. You can also see in advance where you might need to go back and do additional research to beef up your arguments.

Starting with an outline also helps you stay on track with your arguments so you can choose the strongest ones. Don’t add statements that aren’t supported by your research to pad out your essay. Stick to the most persuasive arguments and make sure they are well-supported.

Back up your arguments with solid facts

  1. Have A Clear Introduction And Conclusion

Introductions and conclusions are tricky things, and a good start is one of the most challenging tasks in writing a good essay. You’ve probably heard that your opening paragraph needs to grab your reader’s attention. One of the most effective ways to do this is to introduce your key idea and lay out your thesis. Your reader will lose interest in a hurry if your introduction is fluffy or full of claims that you can’t support.

Your conclusion should summarize your main points in a way that satisfyingly wraps up your essay and supports your main argument.

Probably the best tactic to use for writing both your conclusion and introduction is not to do them during your first draft. Instead, once you’ve written the rough draft, reread it, and then write the conclusion to fit the essay. Then write your introduction so that it asks all the questions that you have answered in your conclusion.

For more advice on how to write a clear essay Introduction, click here.

Editing is a crucial part of the writing process

  1. Make Better Word Choices

Make word choices that are appropriate for your topic and your writing style. Don’t complicate your writing needlessly. Padding with overly complicated words and phrases that you don’t understand and that don’t suit the topic will not get you a better grade.

Say what you want to say clearly and simply. Explaining a complicated idea in simple language is a sign that you understand the concept well, and should result in a better grade.

  1. Always Proofread Your Work

While it may seem like a no-brainer, you should always do a spell check and grammar check at the end of your writing session. Many essays written in the middle of the night have costly typos and grammatical mistakes that can be easily fixed with a simple spell-check.

Take time away from your paper

If you have time before your assignment is due, put your paper away and come back to it in a few days. This time away can help you see mistakes more clearly. When you proofread, look for obvious grammar and spelling errors; but also watch for clear sentence structure and plainly-stated arguments. What seemed to make sense at 3 am when you wrote it, might be stated in a stronger way.

  1. Don’t Plagiarize

This also may seem obvious, but it is never a good idea to present someone else’s ideas as your own. Plagiarism is a serious offence, and there can be severe academic consequences. Many teachers and institutions use online plagiarism tools that look for repeated phrases in your writing.

Be original. Have an idea and always back up your sources with references to support your work.

second set of eyes can make your essay better

  1. Get A Second Opinion

When you’ve done the work of crafting your arguments, supporting them with evidence, and presenting it all in a well-worded essay, get a trusted second opinion before you turn it in.

Having someone proofread your work can reveal typos and grammatical mistakes that you missed, or can identify unclear arguments or sentence structure. Having a second pair of eyes on your work can only help to make it stronger.

If you need help polishing the final stages of your essay, or need assistance just to get started, Masters Essay can help. Our team of professional writers, editors, and proofreaders can work with you and help you finish your work on time, and show you how to present your ideas in the best way possible.

Take a look at our list of services for more information, and call Masters Essay at 1(800) 573-0840 for more.

18 07 19

 Many people assume that good writers are born that way. A modicum of natural talent is certainly helpful; however, when it comes to long-term writing success, good work habits make all the difference. How many gifted writers are there with half-finished work on their hard drives? The completion of a well-written project requires solid work habits, discipline, and self-knowledge. Luckily, these are not traits; they are skills that can be learned!

These pro tips from successful writers will help you see your work through from start to finish.

Getting Ready to Write

Sometimes, just sitting down to work is the biggest obstacle! Whether it’s challenging yourself with a deadline, setting aside time for writing, or avoiding distractions, writers need to engage self-discipline to create the opportunity to be creative.

  1. Deadlines Are Your Friends

Deadlines can be a blessing in disguise. They propel you through the more difficult stages of your process, helping that end goal to stay within view. Self-motivated projects are understandably challenging to complete—so create deadlines for yourself. Essay contests and job applications can help provide motivating deadlines for a writer.

While some creative writers may find adrenaline to be a helpful motivational tool, with academic or business writing, it is more likely to result in sloppy work. Your arguments will be stronger and your vocabulary richer if you avoid the stress of a rapidly approaching end-date. By getting a head start, you won’t short change the vital editing process, and you won’t be thrown off course if setbacks occur.

  1. Limit Distractions

Short story writer Nathan Englander advises, “If you want to get work done, you’ve got to learn to unplug.” When you hit roadblocks in your work, it can feel like a relief to distract yourself by messaging a friend. However, studies prove that productivity skyrockets when personal phones are kept out of sight, or at least switched to “airplane mode.”

For many writers, working at home is the easiest way to avoid noise and distractions. However, if you have children or pets, messy areas might become an additional distraction (and a temptation to procrastinate). It can be hard to focus when surrounded by piles of dirty laundry.

Morning is a particularly peaceful time to write

  1. Use Your Most Productive Hours

The best time to write varies from writer to writer. Often, finding your ideal writing window will depend on how you work best. If you require silence to focus, early morning is a great choice (before anyone has the chance to distract you). Writers Toni Morrison, Ernest Hemingway, and Haruki Murakami famously preferred the early hours for their efforts.

One advantage of morning writing is a sense of accomplishment that can carry you throughout the day. You’ve made progress; now you can relax without writing looming all afternoon. Use the time for editing, administrative tasks, or research, and focus on writing during your most fruitful hours.

Finding a distraction-free workspace

  1. Create Your Optimal Environment

Not every writer prefers absolute silence or solitude. The presence of others can also be inspiring and comforting. This helps explain the rise in popularity of co-working spaces, which are popping up all over campuses and urban centers. The library can also be a pleasant respite from the busy atmosphere of a coffee shop. Regardless of where you work, noise-cancelling earphones can help shut out the chatter. Just be sure to pick music that inspires you! Up-tempo instrumental music can keep you from succumbing to boredom and fatigue.

  1. Finally: Forget The Rules!

It can be challenging to stick to a regular writing routine with the stresses of our daily lives. It’s important not to fret over less-than-ideal circumstances if you can’t change them. As E.B. White put it, “A writer who waits for ideal conditions under which to work will die without putting a word on paper.”

It’s also helpful to remember that even the best writers don’t always feel like sitting down to work. As Henry Miller once said, “write according to program and not according to mood.”

Now That You’ve Started

Congratulations: you’re off! These simple techniques will help you stay focused while improving your results.

Using a timer can help you stay focused

  1. Set Short-Term Goals

Short-term goalposts can help you drive towards the finish line. You choose the writing interval, which may vary from project to project. When writing a thesis, for example, it’s easy to feel overwhelmed by such a seemingly monumental task. However, when you break that task up into manageable increments, anything is possible! Just take it one step at a time. Whether it’s a half hour or an hour, all you need to worry about it keeping your head down until the buzzer sounds. Be wary of using your phone as a timer, since this may tempt you to use it as a distraction.

  1. Leave Yourself Somewhere to Start

If you don’t know where to start the next day, sitting down to write can seem impossibly daunting. One oft-repeated piece of advice is to stop writing for the day (or the session) in the middle of a sentence or paragraph. If you provide yourself with a launching pad, you’ll start work focused and inspired, and you’ll get the satisfaction of “finishing” something early in the session. If you’re working from an outline, know exactly where you’ll begin the next day before signing off, to fend off that dreaded fear of the blank page.

 Exercise is a powerful stress reliever

  1. Move Your Body

Sometimes, when a section is particularly frustrating, a walk or jog can be just what you need. Exercise can clear your head and get you back on track, refreshed. It’s hard sitting at a desk for hours on end! If you’ve set your timer and worked for your allotted time, use your break period to get moving. A walk around the block, a dip in the pool, or a few jumping jacks can be enough to get you energized. Kurt Vonnegut once reported that he broke up his writing with push-ups and sit-ups to fend off lethargy.

Editing And Rewriting

Make self-editing a key part of your process

This can sometimes seem like the toughest part of writing, but it is one of the most critical steps for doing good work. Neil Gaiman described revision as “a process of making it look like you knew what you were doing all along.”

  1. Get Feedback

Go to one or two trusted friends, but don’t go to ten. The further along you are in your career, the more likely you are to have respectful, trusting relationships with other writers. Don’t be afraid to reach out, but avoid the temptation to ask everyone for their “take” on your work. Too many opinions can be counter-productive, particularly if the views are from individuals with a limited understanding of your topic.

If you don’t have anyone you feel comfortable showing your work, or if you’re pressed for time, consulting a professional writing service can be invaluable.

  1. Know When To Delete

Editing the same passages repeatedly can be time-consuming and frustrating. If your wording isn’t creating the desired effect, or if you’re finding it too difficult to make a succinct point, radical surgery may be required. Delete the problematic passage and start over. If it doesn’t work, you can always revert to an earlier version history; but often the solution will become apparent to you once you have a clean slate.

Knowing When To Walk Away

Remember: your work will never be perfect. Be satisfied knowing that you did the best you could. If you set yourself up for success with your writing habits, you can avoid fretting over sections that might have improved with more time. No writer has all the time they want, and we do the best with what we have. While you may eventually look back on your work and notice small errors that you missed, that’s simply the nature of the process.

Whether you’re writing a thesis, a research paper or a college admissions essay, know that writers all over the world struggle with the same issues you do. While there’s no “easy” way to write, establishing good writing habits will set you apart from the crowd. For expert editing and writing services, call 1 (800) 573-0840 (toll-free) to speak with a professional paper writer. With offices in Toronto, Calgary and Vancouver, Masters Essay can help make sure great habits result in great writing.

19 06 19

Writing a Ph.D. thesis or dissertation takes time and energy. The process of conceptualizing, designing, developing, and the final presentation of the work requires students to devote their undivided attention to be able to complete the study on time, not to mention having to gain the approval of the examiners.

Masters Essay: How to Write A Ph.D. Thesis

If you’re nearing the finish line of your doctorate and you’re currently at the initial stages of your dissertation, here are some helpful suggestions for writing your doctoral thesis.

Research a pressing issue in your field

Choosing A Topic

Choose a topic of interest that coincide with your program’s area of expertise or interest. In most cases, graduate students develop their studies around a specific question that their programs have emphasized and proceed to work with supervisors in the faculty who possess the technical knowledge and expertise in those areas. If you are given a free hand to determine your focus, you will be expected to explore diverse themes related to your discipline before zeroing in on a final direction.

Here are a few tips to consider during topic ideation:

  • Identify “hot issues.” Bounce off ideas with your research supervisor and determine the key topics or pressing issues in your field. Widen your knowledge by reading up on the latest studies, published journals, academic case studies, annual reports, news articles, or data summaries around your topic.
  • Journal your ideas. Write down your thoughts and discoveries so you can revisit, modify, or change them when needed. This will help you to focus your thoughts and keep track of ideas to develop and that may be important in improving your theme.
  • Don’t seek a “perfect” topic. Some students might fall in the trap of overthinking their research topic. If you ever stall out, get in contact with your supervisor and get expert advice.
  • Consult a faculty member. The Graduate School of the University of British Columbia suggests that researchers familiarize the specializations of individual faculty members in their graduate program. This helps you know if these members are the right fit for your research supervisory committee.

Choose a topic that resonates with your professional goals

Developing Your Topic

As you develop your research topic, consider your career goals after earning your doctorate. A graduate student that’s worth their salt uses their dissertation to define the trajectory of their career path after university. Choose a topic that not only resonates with your interests and that of your program but also propels your career forward.

Consider the following questions when developing your topic: Can the question sustain your interest and enthusiasm? Are there solutions to the problem? Could these lead to other problems worth researching? Can it make an original contribution to the field? Can you deliver the promise of the research?

Focus on a specific area of interest that you’d like to study

Drafting Your Research Proposal

Once you’re sure of your topic, the next step is to draft your research proposal. A proposal must detail the first few chapters and the core sections of the dissertation. It must include the following parts (in order):

  1. Statement of the Problem (also called Background Information)
  2. Review of Related Literature (RRL)
  3. Planned Research Method

Here are some additional helpful suggestions for focusing and writing your research proposal:

  • Read proposals from other researchers. This will help you get a general idea of how a finished proposal should be. Ask for one exemplary paper from your field of study. Take note of:
    • How the proposal was organized
    • The types of headings used
    • The level of clarity and specificity
    • The author’s breadth of knowledge on the subject
  • Write a quality Review of Literature. Don’t wait until the dissertation proper to prepare for this essential chapter. Your RRL should cover two arguments:
    • Why your research is needed
    • The essence of your methodology in answering the question raised

Allocate sufficient time to develop your arguments. The longer you work on your RRL, the more time you have to locate resources, and the better a literature review you can produce.

  • Archive all relevant resource materials. Make sure to organize them according to sections, arrange them in sequential order, and copy all bibliographic citations. This will come in handy when you need to reference a specific piece for your bibliography.
  • Zero in on one area. Put a laser focus on your topic. Devote enough time to create specific and definite arguments for your research.
  • Decide on a proposal title. A carefully considered title helps your readers immediately understand your research at a glance. Steer clear of confusing or vague language, and put the essential words at the beginning of your title. It can be useful to include keywords that will aid other researchers to find your work.

The success of your proposal lies in the quality of your project and how well your presentation is on paper. If you need assistance writing your proposal, there are many proposal writers in Toronto who can guide you through the process.

Refine the scope of your research

Defining The Scope Of Your Research

To gain clarity and create a defined structure, narrow the scope of your research. Defining what you will and will not tackle should be discussed in your proposal. As you refine your scope, consider these points:

  • Choose your methodology judiciously. Your methodology is one of the vital elements that will set the structure of your research. Consider methods used in your field and single out processes that your program and supervisory committee support. Your research supervisor will discuss some methodological questions with you as you develop your proposal.
  • Choose a qualified and supportive supervisory committee. The committee you will work with will play a significant role in the success of your research. Select committee members that are not only experts in the field, but are willing to work with you towards your goal. They should be a source of guidance and encouragement for your labours. Be as open and objective as possible when receiving criticism from your committee.
  • Meet with your committee as often as needed. It is during these meetings that you can thoroughly discuss your proposal and set goals and procedures.

Write with clarity and flair

Writing Your Dissertation

Writing is a vital skill that you need to hone early in the process. Use your proposal as your guide. Write in a way that reflects what you said you would accomplish in your methodology. Do the same for the Statement of the Problem and your RRL.

Write clearly; avoid ambiguity. Have a list of keywords that are important to your research and use them throughout your dissertation. Don’t alternate between words or phrases when you’re referring to only one thing. This will help keep your meaning clear to your readers.

You don’t have to write your paper in sequence (i.e. from the first chapter to the end); in fact, it is usually best to not write the introduction until the paper is completed.  Start with the parts you’re most comfortable with, and work from there. During revisions, you can rearrange sections to best support your arguments and present your evidence.

Here are a few more tips for writing your dissertation:

  • Plan a dissertation structure carefully with your supervisor.
  • Create rough drafts as you go, and refine them as your topic becomes more focused.
  • Create a filing system to easily track relevant results as you write each chapter.
  • Use a reference manager to keep track of your references and notes.
  • Back up your work. Make a digital backup of all the key parts of manual records, logbooks, or diaries you’ve used.

Writing a dissertation can be challenging as you work toward completion. However, with the right guidance and effort, you can complete this undertaking and earn that doctorate you’ve worked hard for.

If you need help in writing your dissertation, you can also get a professional writing service to make the process easier. Masters Essay is here to be your partners in this endeavour. We offer comprehensive dissertation/thesis services for advanced level students in the GTA. Contact us to get started with your project.

22 05 19

Writers from all over the globe will likely agree that writing time is precious. The big question, of course, is how to use that time wisely? How to make sure that you’re as efficient and creative as possible during your allotted hours? Every writing project has its own particular needs, but structuring writing time to maximize productivity saves you time while helping with finding your “flow.” Start with the big picture, then work your way down to the details; this is a great way to stay on point and make the most of those precious minutes.

Follow this step-by-step system to get the most out of your writing process.

  • Step One: Clarifying Your Topic

It may seem obvious, but knowing what you’re writing about is essential for a productive process. Is your subject clear? Do you require a thesis off the top? Do you need to refine or adjust your first idea to provide a more active, engaging launching pad for the piece? Being sure your topic is sharp and compelling will save you time later.

Building an outline for your piece can be useful even at this early stage. It helps bring your main idea into focus while identifying any weaknesses or gaps in your thinking. This step will also determine whether your current topic is strong enough to carry you through to a conclusion.

Stocking up on research material will pay off later

  • Step Two: Collecting Your Ideas.

Whether the project you are working on requires extensive research, or you’re just jotting down your thoughts, gather as many of these building blocks as you can before you start to write. This will help shape and focus your thinking, and it will increase your efficiency.

Online resources are plentiful and easily accessed, but consider researching your facts the old-fashioned way, too: at a library. Where web searches can be cluttered, requiring painstaking sifting to find what you need, libraries are more organized. A library helps you get precisely what you need, with real live experts working to help you. They’re also terrific places to do your actual writing!

Don’t be afraid to gather more research material than you think you need. Once you put pen to paper, having a deep pool of resources gives you room to grow your piece in surprising ways – it will also help you drop any ideas that aren’t panning out the way you’d hoped. Fill your arsenal with as many relevant concepts, facts, and arguments as you can before moving on to the next step.

Devote time to drafting a clear outline

  • Step Three: Organizing Your Thoughts. If you haven’t already created your outline, now is the time. With your topic, theme or thesis as your starting place, take yourself step-by-step to your conclusion. If it’s a narrative, what’s the structure? How does the story unfold? If it’s a research paper, how could you best cover your topic? What are the salient pieces of information, and what’s the most unambiguous order in which to present them? If it’s an argument, how does it need to develop? Decide how you plan to argue your thesis, and how you’ll respond to potential counterarguments.

Lay out the specific markers that will guide the direction of your piece, determining where the information you’ve collected fits in. Expand your outline by connecting your ideas and research to the appropriate points, and then assess their strengths. Is there any critical research you haven’t made room for in your outline? Do you require ideas or facts that you haven’t yet gathered? Make you have a robust and detailed outline before proceeding with your work.

When you write, have everything you need close by

  • Step Four: Writing! This is the moment you’ve been waiting for. This is where all the groundwork you’ve laid will pay off at this point. You have a clear map to follow, with solid research to back up your ideas. The focused thinking you’ve done earlier equips you with the mental clarity you’ll need to find all the right words.

At this point, set up your writing environment in whichever way works best for you. Do you prefer to work in quiet, or with background music? Are you more focused at home or the library? Will you need coffee or water? Consider whether you’ll require access to the internet for research or reference purposes. For some, a co-working environment provides inspiration and energy. Create an individualized work environment that is comfortable and conducive to focus. Have all of your preparatory work handy, so that you can access it and cross-reference if you need to. Make sure you have pens and paper available if you like to make notes and edits the old-fashioned way. Then, get to it!

Don’t be discouraged if you struggle through those first few pages; developing your ideas and arguments in a clear, compelling way isn’t easy. However, the work done during the first three steps means that your energy will now be used in the best way possible – writing the piece that you want to write. You’ve reduced the likelihood of false starts, missing parts, and wasted drafts by preparing well. You have fertile ground in which to grow your best writing.

Stick to your outline as best you can, but don’t be afraid to adjust as you go. In doing the actual writing, you’ll no doubt make discoveries that you couldn’t have predicted. However, even here, your thorough preparation will make it possible for you to add to, subtract from and modify your piece without becoming lost. Trust your homework and keep your guiding topic in mind. Once you’ve completed a draft, you’re ready for step five.

Be sure to edit thoroughly

  • Step Five: Editing and Proofing. There are online tools that can help immensely at this point. Hopefully, spelling and grammar features have been alerting you to errors as you write. Some people find this helpful; others find it distracting, as it can interrupt their flow. Remember that you can turn off these features if you prefer to wait until you’ve finished a draft before checking its technical accuracy. Regardless, proofing spelling and grammar is only a small part of the editing process. Before you buff that piece to a high shine, you need to be sure that it’s solidly built.

Try to read your draft as though seeing it for the first time. Is it clear? Does it say what you intended it to? Do the arguments and images connect comprehensively? Is it convincing? Consider whether any points or ideas are underdeveloped. Look out for overly long sections that can unbalance the flow of the overall piece. Evaluate whether your writing takes the reader where you want to go.

After proofreading, do a final spell check

Once you’re happy with the structure and flow of your work, then use those technical tools to be sure you deliver the most polished and powerful piece possible.

As you spend more time writing, you’ll undoubtedly discover what works best for you. In the meantime, use this basic structure to help maximize your time, and begin the of finding your flow! For any questions about your next writing project, call 1 (800) 573-0840 to speak to an expert at Masters Essay. Servicing a range of academic needs throughout Canada, we’re ready to help you put your best foot forward at school, or in the competitive international job market.

7 05 19

There are many reasons why you might want to update your resume. Perhaps you are seeking a promotion, or want to shift to another division of your company. Maybe the role and responsibilities of your current position aren’t what you expected, and you need to begin looking for a different job. Wherever you’re at in the workplace world, it’s essential to have a solid resume.

Your resume is how you speak to potential employers. What is your resume saying about you? Here are six tips to consider when building your resume.

  1. To Embellish, or Not to Embellish

 an easy answer: not

In a study by Career Builder, over 2,500 hiring managers discovered applicants doing more than dress up a few things. 56% found applicants lying, with 54% taking liberties describing their responsibilities. A quarter caught people adding credits from companies for whom they had never worked! While it’s important to highlight your duties with a position, it’s vital to be straightforward when describing the scope of your responsibilities on your resume.

  1. Does Your Resume Reflect Career Progression?

Your resume should be the story of your career; ideally one with an upward trajectory. Set the tone of the resume by including relevant experience or training for the job listing. Hopefully, your most recent job will fit; but if you’re still working on gaining career highlights, pull from another credit instead.

If you’re switching career paths, or you already have varied work experience, it’s okay to structure your resume; for example, you might have one category outlining your research-based work, and a different group highlighting your people skills. Organizing your experience into categories allows you to present a fuller picture of your abilities.

resume speak to anyone and everyone

  1. First Impressions are Important

Many recruiters say that it takes them a mere six seconds to decide if they’re putting your resume in the “yes” or “no” pile. This is why first impressions are so crucial. You don’t need to use coloured paper or wild fonts, but you should give your resume some style. Remember, you aren’t trying to convince them of your design sense; you’re trying to avoid being tossed in the “no” pile after a cursory glance.

Does your resume look original, and not based on a template? Even if you used a model to start, you can still give it a clean, polished look that doesn’t feel like a stark template. Are the length and overall appearance appropriate for the job? You want to make it easy to process with a quick look, as the person reading it might easily be looking at upwards of hundreds of resumes.

Points to consider regarding appearance:

  • Clear design with white space between sections
  • Clean copy, with no typos or spelling errors
  • Un-cluttered paragraphs
  • Simple, effective bullet points
  1. Font Matters

font resonate positively

How you present your choice of words also matters. Font choice is such a vital part of displaying a favourable appearance that it deserves its own mention. The main point when choosing a font style is making your resume easier to read. There are a couple of essential points to be made regarding font choice:

  • Choose a serif font for print – “Serif” refers to those little tails or flags at the end of a letter — like this. Those tails are supposed to lead the eye forward to the next letter, making it easier to read, especially when you are reading a large number of pages. “Sans serif” means without a serif, meaning there are no added tails to the letters.
  • Don’t be fashionable – A common wisecrack is “Don’t use Comic Sans.” That’s because this niche font was momentarily very trendy and was vastly over-used.
  • Know how it will be read – Some fonts work better on paper; some fonts look better on screen. If you know how your resume will be read, then select a font that makes the most of that medium. If you’re not sure, fonts like Cambria work equally well in both media.

Top Three Fonts for Print:

  • Bookman Old Style
  • Cambria
  • Garamond

Top Three Fonts for Online:

  • Calibri
  • Cambria
  • Georgia

If you want to delve deeper into it, there are many visually pleasing fonts that will assist in giving your resume some life and voice. Choose a font that is easy to read and pleasing to the eye, and your resume is likelier to end up in the “yes” pile for a second glance.

  1. Don’t Say Too Much

It’s important not to bog down your resume with unnecessary details. Tailor make your resume to include specifics that make you a more desirable candidate. If a credit isn’t relevant to the job, remove it. There’s no need to clutter up your resume with experiences that don’t apply.

Keep your resume clean; don’t add unnecessary flourishes. The same goes for introductions and cover letters. The ability to be concise will set you apart.

  1. Hobbies and Interests

If your hobbies and interests are genuinely applicable to the job, by all means, add them. Be specific. Saying that you like music isn’t descriptive; saying that you have a membership to the symphony, or that you play with a band that goes to retirement homes is. Membership in groups like Toastmasters demonstrates a willingness for self-improvement, as well as an interest in public speaking.

online presence can help stand out

Bonus tip: Managing Your Online Presence

Depending on your field, having an online presence could help you stand out. However, your online presence can also be a drawback. Companies and their clients don’t want to work with someone who will potentially bring them unwanted negative attention. Having a positive, work-relevant social media presence shows potential employers you know how to be professional. Always remember, anything that you put up online is trackable and could be noticed by the watchful eye of someone in your industry.

Three ways to use social media positively:

  • LinkedIn – Make connections with business and colleagues
  • Twitter – Post relevant industry content on your @twitter account
  • Facebook – Have a separate Facebook account for work colleagues and your personal friends

Emma-Matthews

Follow these ideas and suggestions when you update your cover letter and resume. We’ve covered a lot, but taking it step-by-step will make the process less overwhelming.

If your current circumstances leave you with little time, or you need help putting your best foot forward in print, Masters Essay can help. Whether you require basic editing assistance or are starting from scratch, our writing staff can help set you apart from other candidates. With over 200 professional, MA, MSc, JD, MBA & Ph.D. accelerated writers, we can ensure that your resume is a step above the competition.

You can contact Masters Essay toll-free at 1-800-573-0840, by email at sales@masterwriter.ca, or place an order online through our online service page.

20 03 19

A strong introduction grabs the reader’s attention and gets them hooked.

When it comes to writing quality research papers and essays, a good introduction is essential. It’s where you introduce your ideas and make them look intriguing. Think of it as a first impression to convince readers your work is worth reading. It’s the high-stakes section of the essay.

A-strong-into-sets-the-stage-for-your-essay

When you write your essay, there’s plenty to do. First, you have to build your ideas and present your thesis statement. This gives the reader an idea of what you want to say and the point you want to make. Creating a good introduction is a priority when writing. Do it right, and readers will want to continue. Use these tips to master the process and make a compelling introduction to your main points.

Spend-time-making-a-great-hook

Hook your reader right away

Your first sentence sets the tone for the entire essay. Take some time to make a compelling hook. There are different strategies available to hook your readers from the get-go. For example, you might introduce facts or statistics to demonstrate why your topic matters. For a historical essay, you could use an anecdote about your subject. You could ask a thought-provoking question. These approaches get the reader actively thinking about your theme.

A good introduction is engaging. Make your reader think about your topic and how you will frame your arguments. Audiences are more likely to engage with the rest of your essay once you’ve got them thinking.

Contextualize the topic

Give your readers the information they will need to understand your essay. For example, you might define technical terms you will use, to bring readers up to speed, or introduce points you plan to bring up later. How much information you give depends on the length of the paper and the complexity of your ideas.

Be specific; avoid overwhelming the reader with unnecessary detail. Save the details for the body and conclusion of the work. Keep in mind that your introduction gives an idea of what to expect from your essay as a whole. Start relatively broadly, then narrow the focus down to your thesis.

Present relevant information

When offering background for your hook (e.g. anecdotes or statistics), keep it relevant. If you are writing a biographical essay, an incident from childhood can be a charming way to engage the reader. However, if you’re writing a book report, a story about a friend who did not like it may not be relevant or useful.

Stay focused; the object is to make things clearer to the reader. Keep your focus on the task at hand to avoid unnecessary detours.

A-thesis-statement-sums-up-your-main-points

Offer a clear thesis statement

One good rule for essay-writing is summarizing your main point with a thesis statement. In essence, a thesis statement summarizes your overall argument. A thesis for a literature essay might introduce your analysis of the author’s themes. Do not use your thesis statement to explain your position; save your arguments for the body, where you have space to express your ideas and proof in detail.

Traditionally, many writers place thesis statements near the end of their introduction. While you can do that, it’s not a rule. You can put your thesis statement wherever you think it would be most effective. If you think it would be more appropriate to state your case at the outset, feel free.

Build an outline to help with summarizing

Summarize your essay

After presenting your thesis statement, it’s a good idea to explain to the reader how you plan to prove it. Provide a quick summary of your main points and what you will have to say in the body. Keep your sentences simple and clear. Instead of discussing your supporting points, sum them up by stating “how” or “why” your theme is correct.

For example, if your essay is a review of a book or movie, you might enumerate your critiques here. Keep it simple. The time for multi-syllable words and complex arguments comes later. The introduction is meant to be a prelude to the essay. For now, the summary helps your readers understand what you’re telling them and what your evidence is.

Avoid cliches

Avoid using cliches and generalizations. In most cases, they look unimaginative and unoriginal. For example, starting an essay with a flat definition can bore your reader. If you must define a term in your introduction, find a creative and engaging way to present the information. Avoid broad, sweeping generalizations (words like “always” or “everyone”). They may ring false with some readers and alienate them.

One good example of cliches in action is the college entrance essay. The purpose of this kind of composition is to attract the attention of the adjudicator and separate yourself from other applicants in their mind. However, many writers fall into the trap of presenting the topic instead of exploring the purpose or theme of the essay. For instance, rather than describing a hardship that you overcame or a success that you achieved, use it as an opportunity for self-reflection. Explore how the event or individual affected you, and what you learned about yourself because of it.

In an academic paper, it’s more important to introduce your main idea or theme and to lead readers into the essay. Present your idea as the clever hook that engages the reader. Make your point without overgeneralizing or giving away too much information.

Write-the-introduction-last

Write the intro last

The introduction might be the opening part of your paper, but it doesn’t have to be the part you write first. If you’re having difficulty making it work, write the essay first, and then come back to the introduction.

Some writers find it easier to write the body and their main points first. It can be easier to summarize the essay if you’ve already done most of the work earlier. You may also find it easier to write after giving yourself time to get used to the piece as a whole. Jot down notes for your introduction as you write. These notes can help inform how you write the introduction later. For example, you may find a term that you need to define at the beginning.

Proofread before you finish

Transition into the body

Sometimes you can segue smoothly from the introduction and into the body. Other times you may need a transitional sentence to flow naturally into the rest of the essay. Test your essay after you finish to see how well it flows. Read the introduction and the first paragraph of the body out loud. If the transition feels awkward, add a bridge sentence to make the flow smoother.

Ask someone to read it, too. Another pair of eyes can help you spot mistakes before editing and proofreading. Consult a trusted source for suggestions on how to polish your introduction further.

The introduction has plenty riding on it. A strong opening will engage your readers and get them about your ideas from the beginning. Take advantage of these tips to make your introduction more striking, engaging, and compelling.

If you need help with your writing, give Masters Essay a call. We specialize in writing and editing essays, speeches, and reports to help you handle a heavy workload. Our team of professional writers, editors, and proofreaders are ready and willing to provide you with high-quality papers written to academic standards. Give us a call at (800) 573-0840 or visit our contact page for your academic writing needs.

15 02 19

A case study is a research design or method of analysis that seeks to investigate an individual, group, or phenomenon. It lays out key themes and results to understand past and future trends, and aims to explain a problem with more clarity.

Often, a case study examines in detail a single subject to arrive at a clear understanding of the matter. It can include a comparative investigation to show relationships between two or more subjects.

Before you begin to write your case study, read this guide to help you prepare and understand how to do it properly and effectively.

Step 1: Determine the topic of your study.

Identify what you would like to investigate. What issues have you discussed in class? Is there something currently trending on social media or in the news that is of interest to you? Once you decide upon a subject, do further research and interviews to narrow down your focus. Look for information in books, magazines, newspapers, and online journals. Remember to take as many notes as you can as you go along and keep a list of all your resource materials. (You will need this list when citing your references at the end of your study.)

Determine whether anyone has done the same study in the past; this will allow you to refine your work or find a different angle. Reviewing similar studies will provide style and investigative ideas that you might like to try on your own.

The type of case study will depend on your goal.

Step 2: Choose your study type.

There are four types of case studies, depending on your goal and purpose. These include:

  • Illustrative – An illustrative (or descriptive) study uses one or two instances of an event or phenomenon to give readers a clearer overall picture. It aims to give readers a common language and understanding about the given topic.
  • Exploratory – Exploratory (or pilot) case studies aim to find patterns in the data gathered and create a model for easier visualization of that data. They rely on a pre-existing collection of information from which to make an interpretation. The main goal of an exploratory study is to identify questions and select methods of measurement prior to the main investigation.
  • Cumulative – A cumulative study combines information from several sources gathered at different times for greater generalization. This reduces costs and time spent on repetitive studies.
  • Critical instance – The purpose of this study is to examine one or more situations to scrutinize a generalized or universal assumption. Critical instance case studies are typically used in cause and effect situations.

Structure your study for clarity.

Step 3: Have a clear structure and style.

A case study seeks to discover new understandings about a particular issue. It can also contribute to an existing body of knowledge. Therefore, your work should have a clear and organized structure and writing style.

Here are some key elements to take note of as you begin writing your study:

Your introduction should provide a preliminary glimpse into your study.

Introduction – The introduction captures the scope and purpose of your idea; it addresses why and how the case will address the chosen topic. When writing your introduction, try to answer these four questions:

  • What am I studying? Describe the subject of analysis. Briefly explain what elements of the case will help broaden knowledge about it.
  • Why is it important to investigate this topic? Explain the significance of your research issue. Describe why you believe your study design and subject of analysis are essential in understanding the chosen topic.
  • What was presently known before this study was conducted? Give your readers the background information they need to understand why you are writing this study. Describe how your case will prove useful in exploring new knowledge about the topic at hand.
  • How will this study advance further knowledge? Describe why your case study will provide new ways of understanding your topic and how it will expand currently documented knowledge.

These questions should be answered in a few paragraphs. (If you are addressing a complex problem, more elaborate background information is required.)

A well-curated literature review is the backbone of a study.

Literature Review – A literature review includes a historical interpretation of your subject. Background information included here should be well-organized to help your readers better understand the issue.

Here are some tips for writing a solid literature review:

  • Cite and summarize studies that used a similar subject of analysis to tackle a research problem.
  • Include a description of any recent work that supports your analysis and the questions you are asking.
  • Explain how it introduces new ideas that can pave the way for future research, or how it provides a new understanding.
  • Synthesize or combine any literature that pertains to unanswered questions and unresolved concerns about the topic. Describe how your subject of analysis will help address these concerns.

The method should support your subject of analysis.

Method – In this section, explain your reasons for selecting the topic and the strategy used in answering research questions. Descriptions of the method can vary according to the type of analysis in which your case study is framed.

The four subjects of analysis and how to describe your method according to each subject are:

  • Incident/event – The incident looks at a rare happening in order to find new ways of thinking about the broader problem or to test a hypothesis. For a case study about a critical incident, describe the method used to highlight the event. Explain how you determined the validity of the case to discover broader perspectives or new findings with respect to the research.
  • Person – Describe why you chose to focus on this individual. What experience does he or she have that provides an opportunity to promote new knowledge? Include the person’s background information; this will help readers understand the importance of his/her experiences to your study. (When mentioning more than one person, clearly differentiate them from others and explain how they are useful to your research.)
  • Place – Describe the essential attributes of the place or arena in which the topic exists (physical, social, economic, cultural, political, etc.). Explain the method used for choosing this place and how it sheds light on new knowledge. Clearly establish why it has been chosen as the topic.
  • Phenomenon – Any fact or circumstance that can be observed or studied but is not clearly understood can be a phenomenon. In social and behavioral sciences, this may focus on human interaction within a complex social, economic, cultural, or physical setting.

Writing the discussion is all about piecing together your findings.

Discussion – The discussion section should focus on interpreting and drawing conclusions about the significant findings you’ve gathered. This section should have the following objectives:

  • State the major findings – Restate why you focused on the research problem or subject of analysis. In a declarative, straightforward, and succinct statement, describe your findings. Emphasize unexpected data and present it clearly.
  • Explain the essence of the findings – Describe the meaning of your findings and why they are significant. Start with the most important or unexpected findings and review each one.
  • Link the findings to similar existing studies – Acknowledge the relationship of your findings to that of prior studies, especially if your subject of analysis was inspired by others. Comparing and contrasting helps to establish the importance of your results and differentiates your analysis from previous research.
  • Identify the limitations of your study – Explain the limitations of your study as well as any unanswered questions that could not be addressed (or why they are not significant).
  • Suggest areas for future research – Lead the way for future research on your topic. There may be additional questions related to the topic that can lend themselves to further investigation.

Talk about the results and how relevant they are.

Conclusion – Using direct, simple language, summarize your conclusion and highlight how your results differ from or strengthen the conclusion of previous studies. Synthesize the key findings and clearly state how they answer the research questions.

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